مرحباً بكم مع الدرس التاسع من دروس قواعد الإنجليزية، واليوم نتناول شرح زمن الماضي التام The Past Perfect Tense
أولاً: صياغة زمن الماضي التام:
يصاغ زمن الماضي التام بواسطة تصريف فعل الملكية (to have) في صيغة الماضي البسيط ثم التصريف الثالث للفعل الأساسي:
had + past participle
1- يستخدم ليعبر عن حدث وقع وانتهى قبل وقت معين في الماضي مثل:
He had learnt English before he went to England
After I had had my breakfast, I left for school.
When I was a child, I had studied mathematics.
I had just poured a cup of tea when the phone rang.
يلاحظ أن التصريف الثالث من فعل الملكية (to have) هو (had)
غالباً ما نستخدم هذا الزمن مع الكلمات الآتية:
Before, after, when, no sooner ……… than, hardly, scarcely
يلي before فعل في زمن الماضي البسيط والفعل الآخر يكون في زمن الماضي التام
يلي after فعل في زمن الماضي التام والفعل الآخر يكون في زمن الماضي البسيط
I had finished the exercise before you came.
After they had gone out, I sat down and took rest.
He thanked me for what I had done.
No sooner had he returned than he left again.
بعد no sooner يأتي الفعل المساعد مباشرة (had) ثم الضمير الشخصي ثم التصريف الثالث من الفعل الرئيسي ثم تأتي than يليها الضمير الشخصي ثم الفعل الرئيسي في زمن الماضي البسيط.
2- يستخدم للتعبير عن مقترح أو أمنية أو في الجمل الشرطية في الماضي مثل:
If he had arrived yesterday, he would have met us.
I wish he had succeeded last year.
تمرين رقم 1:
صحح الفعل بين القوسين:
1- Before he (go) to the cinema, he (book) the ticket.
2- She did not tell me where she (find) the bag.
3- After I (do) my homework last night, I (go) to the club.
4- When she returned home, she (discover) that her house (rob) and many valuable things (steal).
5- No sooner he (rob) me of my wallet than the police (come).
تمرين رقم 2:
اختر الإجابة الصحيحة وضعها في مكانها المناسب:
1- Before her husband …………….., she had laid the table. (arrive, arrived, had arrived)
2- After she had finished cooking, she ………… the table. (lay, laid, had laid)
3- I knew that he …………….. his lost watch. (found, had found, has found)
4- When I finished my work, he ……………. his work too. (already finished, has already finished, had already finished)
5- I wish he ………………. yesterday. (attended, had attended, has attended)
رابعاً: حلول التمارين:
حل تمرين رقم 1:
1- Before he went to the cinema, he had booked the ticket.
2- She did not tell me where she had found the bag.
3- After I had done my homework last night, I went to the club.
4- When she returned home, she had discovered that her house was robbed and many valuable things were stolen.
5- No sooner had he robbed me of my wallet than the police came.
حل تمرين رقم 2:
1- Before her husband arrived, she had laid the table.
2- After she had finished cooking, she laid the table.
3- I knew that he had found his lost watch.
4- When I finished my work, he had already finished his work too.
5- I wish he had attended yesterday.